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 English Vocabulary for learners 

Expressions with 'MADE':
made of / from / with / out of / by

How the preposition that follows 'made' changes the meaning

The preposition that follows 'made' gives the phrase a specific meaning as shown in the examples below:

    We use 'made of' when the material used does not change.
    • The wall is made of stones. (They are still stones)
    • The ring is made of gold.
    • The window is made of glass.
    • The cabin was made of logs.
    • The house is made of bricks.

    We use 'made from' when the material is transformed into something else.
    • Wine is made from grapes. (They are no longer grapes.)
    • Paper is made from wood.
    • Cheese and butter are made from milk.
    • Flour is made from wheat.

    'Made with' implies that there is more than one element. It is generally used when referring to ingredients for food and drinks.
    • The dish is made with chicken, vegetables, rice, spices and herbs.
    • Pavlova is made with egg whites, sugar, fresh cream and fruit.
    • Cocktails can be made with various mixed drinks.

    'Made out of' is generally used when something is produced from another thing in an unusual or surprising way.
    • The kiosk is made out of recycled paper.
    • She was wearing a hat made out of plastic bags.
    • The shutters were made out of old wooden crates.

    - We use ‘made by’ to say who did or produced something.
    • The Christmas cards were made by children.
    • The comment was made by the author himself.
    • The envelopes are made by XYZ company.

    - We also use ‘made by’ to refer to the method used or to say how something is done.
    • All the dresses are made by hand.
    • The treatment is made by using antibody genes.
    • The reference to another writer was made by accident.

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