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reporting what another person says.

In reported (indirect) speech, we report an idea expressed by someone, without quoting the exact words used.
A certain number of changes have to be made in reported speech.
  • Direct Speech:
    "I like football." said Tom.
  • Reported Speech:
    Tom said (that) he liked football.
How to change from direct to reported speech:
  • We use verbs such as : say, tell, announce, promise, explain.
  • The verb tenses become more past : Boy: "I like ice-cream." → He said he liked ice-cream.
  • We can omit 'that' when it is followed by a subject or subject pronoun (I, you, he...):
    -He said (that) the technician would arrive soon.
    -The technician said (that) he would arrive soon.
  • We change the pronouns: Jane: "Can you hear me?" → Jane asked if I could hear her.

  • Direct Speech:
    You talk to Mr. Smith and he tells you the following things :
    • I clean my car every Friday.
    • I am doing a computer course this year.
    • I visited a museum yesterday.
    • I will be 30 tomorrow.
    → Indirect or Reported Speech:
    You report your conversation with Mr. Smith to your husband/wife/friend :
    • Mr. Smith said (that) he cleaned his car every Friday.
    • He said (that) he was doing a computer course this year.
    • He said (that) he had visited a museum yesterday.
    • He said (that) he would be 30 tomorrow.
    Please note: 'That' can be omitted if it is followed by a subject or subject pronoun (I, you, he…).
    → Questions :
    In indirect or reported questions, the word order changes.
      Direct :
    • When is your husband starting his new job?
      Indirect :
    • He asked me when my husband was starting his new job.
    → Orders, requests, advice and suggestions:
    Orders, requests, advice and suggestions are often reported by using the infinitive.
      Direct :
    • Be careful!
    • Don't drive too fast.
      Indirect :
    • I told him to be careful.
    • I told him not to drive too fast.
    Direct Speech Reported Speech
    Present Simple
    • Sophie said: "I want to go home."
    Past Simple
    Sophie said (that) she wanted to go home.
    Present Continuous
    Sam said: “I am doing my homework.”
    Past Continuous
    Sam said (that) he was doing his homework.
    Present Perfect
    • Eva said: “I have seen the film.”
    Past Perfect
    Eva said (that) she had seen the film.
    Present Perfect Continuous 
    • The boss said: "I have been waiting for you."
    Past Perfect Continuous 
    My boss said (that) he had been waiting for me.
    Past Simple
    Dad said: “I mowed the garden.”
    Past Perfect
    Dad said (that) he had mowed the garden.
    Past Continuous 
    Tom said: "I was talking to Bob."
    Past Perfect Continuous 
    Tom said (that) he had been talking to Bob.
    Past Perfect
    Julie said: "I had read the book."
    Past Perfect (no change)
    • Julie said (that) he had read the book.
    Past Perfect Continuous
    Paul said: I had been gardening."
    Past Perfect Continuous (no change)
    • Paul said (that) he had been gardening.
    She said: “I will never leave you.
    His wife said (that) she would never leave him
    • Billy said: “I can swim 500 metres.”
    Billy said (that) he could swim 500 metres.
    Eva said: “It may be too expensive.”
    Eva said (that) it might be too expensive.
    The teacher said: “Everyone must arrive on time.”
    Had to
    The teacher said (that) everyone had to arrive early.
    Have to
    Carla said: “I have to lock the door.”
    Had to
    Carla said (that) she had to lock the door.
    Orders, advice, suggestions
    His mother said: “Be careful!”
    She said: ”Don’t drive too fast!”
    The infinitive is used in reporting
    His mother told him to be careful.
    She told him not to drive too fast.
    The following modal verbs do not change in reported speech:
    might, could, would, should, ought to. 

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