Connect With Us on Facebook.

Welcome to my guestmap
Please place a pin on the
guestmap to show where you come from.

Free Guestmap from

Many thanks for all your encouraging messages.
Much appreciated.

Guestmap information

 Visitors :


English Grammar  


Words and phrases used to combine two clauses or sentences

Linking words and phrases in English (also called 'connective' or 'transition' words) are used to combine two clauses or sentences presenting contrast, comparison, condition, supposition, purpose, etc.
They enable us to establish clear connections between ideas.

Most linking words can either connect clauses within a sentence, or start a sentence to form a link with the previous statement.

*Note : A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb.
 The following sentence contains two clauses:
 She lives in Mexico because she likes the climate.

Below you will find some examples of linking words and how to use them. This is not a comprehensive list.
You may want to add your own linking words and phrases.

Examples of linking words within one sentence:

Linking Words Examples of Use
As long as
provided (that)
You can take my car as long as/provided (that)/providing you don't damage it.
(I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.)
Although/even though He lives in a small house although he is a millionaire.
(In spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house.)
Because of
By virtue of
Due to
Owing to
Seeing as
She walked quickly because she was late.
The picnic was cancelled because of  the storm.
The town was famous by virtue of its history.
The flight was delayed due to snow on the runway.
The teacher changed the topic given the lack of interest shown.
The product was discontinued owing to a significant drop in sales.
You should buy the car seeing as you have enough money.
I’ll apply for the job
since you’re not interested.
Even if He is poor and has no house, but even if he had money, he wouldn't buy a house.
(Supposing he had the money, he still wouldn't buy a house.)
In case Take an umbrella in case it rains.
(It might rain, so it's a good idea to take an umbrella.)
In spite of / despite In spite of/despite the rain, she walked to the station.
In spite of/despite being blind, he walked to the station.
(without being affected by the rain or by being blind.)
Inasmuch as The roof caved in but we were lucky inasmuch as there were no fatal injuries.
You are responsible for them inasmuch as you are their commanding officer.
Hugo won the race notwithstanding his lack of training.
On account of They split up on account of their continuous disputes.

So that
So as to
In order to
For that purpose:
Julie arrived early so that she could help her colleagues.
The access road was widened so as to facilitate deliveries.
I need to improve my English
in order to find a better job.
Unless The radio won’t stop unless you turn it off.
Whatever You can count on me whatever you decide to do.
(No matter what your decision is, you can count on me.)
Whereas Tom is rich, whereas Jack is poor.
(Tom is rich; in contrast Jack is poor.)
Whenever I will lend you my car whenever you need it.
(No matter when you need my car, I will lend it to you.)
Wherever My thoughts will be with you wherever you go.
(No matter where you go, my thoughts will be with you.)

Examples of linking words that connect two separate sentences or two clauses:

Note :
If linking words start a sentence, they are followed by a comma.
When they are used to connect two clauses, a semi-colon is placed at the end of the first clause.
A comma is often used after the linking word(s).

Linking Words Examples of Use
As a result
- Prices were reduced by 20%. As a result, sales increased.
- The company is expanding. Consequently, there are jobs on offer.
- A hurricane has been announced. Therefore, air traffic will be disrupted.
In addition
- The trip is too expensive. Besides, I don't really like hot weather.
- Computers are cheaper nowadays; furthermore, they are lighter.
- You haven't paid the rent yet.  In addition, you owe me money.
- The report is badly presented. Moreover, it contains inaccuracies.
For instance
For example
- There are several problems to consider; for instance/for example, there is a lack of public transport.
On the contrary
On the other hand
- Northern European countries had a great summer.
  On the contrary/conversely, southern Europe had poor weather.
- Laptops are convenient; on the other hand, they can be expensive.
- The hotel was open. However, nobody came to the reception desk.
- He had severe injuries; nevertheless, he completely recovered.
- The weather was bitterly cold. He went hiking nonetheless.
- The castle was sold.
  Subsequently/afterwards it became a hotel.
In the same way
By the same token
- Alex enjoys telling jokes;
  in the same way /similarly / likewise, his son adores funny stories.
- Teenagers should be more respectful;
  by the same token, parents should be more understanding.
To sum up
To conclude
In conclusion
- I've covered the main events of the year.
  To sum up / briefly, our team is now one of the best in the world.
  To conclude / in conclusion, I want to wish you all a very happy holiday season.

Try these online exercises:
multi-choice ex.1 multi-choice ex.2 Make new sentence ex.1 Make new sentence ex.2

 back to grammar   homepage