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English Grammar  

Although - even though / Despite - in spite of

Meaning and use in English.

Although/even though and despite/in spite of are used to combine or link two contrasting statements.

  • ALTHOUGH and EVEN THOUGH are followed by a subject and a verb.

    Even though is a slightly stronger form of 'although'.

    Although and though have the same meaning and are interchangeable in most cases.
    ‘Though’ is less formal than ‘although’.
    Note: ‘Though’ can also be used as an adverb, means ‘however’:
    “He took my newspaper. I don’t mind, though."

    • Although/even though it was raining, she walked to the station.
    • Although/even though he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car.
    • Although/even though Amy was wearing glasses, she couldn't read the notice.
    • Although/even though he disapproved, he said nothing.
    • Although/even though Jack had worked hard, he failed the exam.

  • DESPITE and IN SPITE OF are followed by a noun, a pronoun or a verb ending in -ing.
    (The gerund, a verb ending in -ing, is the 'noun' form of a verb.)

    N.B. Despite/in spite of  have the same meaning, but despite is used without 'of'.

    • Despite / in spite of  the rain he walked to the station.
    • He noticed the rain but he walked to the station in spite of it.
    • Despite being wet and tired, he walked to the station.
    • He decided to go sailing despite /in spite of the bad weather conditions.
More examples:
"He had enough money. He refused to buy a new car."
The above two statements can be combined as follows :
  • Although/even though he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car.
  • Despite/in spite of having enough money he refused to buy a new car.
  • He had enough money, but despite/in spite of that he refused to buy a new car.

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